Glioblastoma multiforme remains refractory to conventional therapy, and novel therapeutic modalities are desperately needed. TP-38 is a recombinant chimeric protein containing a genetically engineered form of the cytotoxic Pseudomonas exotoxin fused to transforming growth factor (TGF)-alpha. TGF-alpha binds with high affinity to the epidermal growth factor receptor, which is uniformly overexpressed in malignant gliomas, often because of gene amplification. Prior to therapy with TP-38, the patient described here was completely refractory to multiple other therapies, with radiographic and pathologic evidence of tumor progression. After therapy, she improved clinically, was weaned off steroids and anti-convulsants, and experienced a progressive decrease in enhancing tumor volume. Despite multiple prior recurrences, she has not progressed for >43 months after TP-38 therapy. Small remaining areas of enhancement demonstrate no evidence of tumor histologically and are hypometabolic on positron emission tomography. This report describes a dramatic and sustained clinical and radiographic response in a patient with a bifrontal glioblastoma multiforme treated with intratumoral infusion of a novel targeted toxin, TP-38.