Diabetes mellitus leads to endothelium dysfunction and an accelerated progression of atherosclerosis. Vascular complications of diabetes mellitus can affect not only large and medium arteries resulting in coronary heart disease and peripheral arteries diseases, but also small vessels leading to retinopathy and nephropathy. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), E-selectin and von Willebrand factor (vWF) are considered as markers of endothelium dysfunction. The aim of our study was to evaluate plasma levels of ICAM-1, VCAM-1, E-selectin and vWF in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus receiving insulin therapy and who had diabetic non-proliferative retinopathy, proliferative retinopathy, or did not develop diabetic retinopathy. There were no statistically significant differences between studied groups in any of evaluated endothelium dysfunction markers. There was no statistically significant correlation between measured parameters and a period of diabetic history. None of the studied markers presented a significant correlation with a period of insulin treatment.