We examined nerve biopsies from 24 patients with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A) and proven 17p11.2-12 duplication. There were seven males and 17 females with a mean age of 27.85 +/- 18.95 years at the time of nerve biopsy. A family history consistent with dominant inheritance was present in 17 patients. Clinical features were classical in 16 patients and were atypical in the other eight: one had calf hypertrophy; two had Roussy-Levy syndrome; one had had a subacute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy 11 years earlier and presented a relapse on the form of a chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy; one had carpal tunnel syndrome; one had a recent painful neuropathy in both legs; and two had chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. Onion bulb formations (OMFs) were present in every case and most of them were characteristic, whereas burnt-out or cluster-associated OMFs were less common. Depletion of myelinated fibers was severe in 20 cases (169-2927/mm2) and varied from 5187 to 3725/mm2 in three children (4-9 years old). In addition, features of macrophage-associated demyelination were observed in the last four atypical cases. Known for more than 20 years, inflammatory demyelination superimposed in the course of CMT1A has been reported in a few cases in the past few years, mainly concerning asymptomatic or atypical patients. Such an association deserves to be better known because corticotherapy improves weakness in most of these patients.