Vaccines represent one promising method for reducing the sexually transmitted disease (STD) epidemic. This study evaluated whether influences on the decision to accept a genital herpes vaccine differed by gender. In all, 518 college students completed a questionnaire on sexual history, health beliefs, and acceptance of a potential genital herpes vaccine. Each predictor variable plus a gender interaction term were analysed in separate logistic regression models. Follow-up analyses were performed by gender for outcomes that displayed significant interactions. Results indicated that a prior history of an STD and increased perception of risk for acquiring genital herpes were significant predictors of vaccine acceptance for men, while younger age and concerns about vaccine safety were significant predictors for women. Endorsement of a vaccine strategy targeting sexually experienced people was an influential factor for both genders, but was a much stronger one for women. Results suggest that gender-specific strategies may be crucial to genital herpes vaccine acceptance.