Formation of bradykinin: a major contributor to the innate inflammatory response

Adv Immunol. 2005;86:159-208. doi: 10.1016/S0065-2776(04)86005-X.


The plasma kinin-forming cascade can be activated by contact with negatively charged macromolecules leading to binding and autoactivation of factor XII, activation of prekallikrein to kallikrein by factor XIIa, and cleavage of high molecular weight kininogen (HK) by kallikrein to release the vasoactive peptide bradykinin. Once kallikrein formation begins, there is rapid cleavage of unactivated factor XII to factor XIIa, and this positive feedback is favored kinetically over factor XII autoactivation. Examples of surface initiators that can function in this fashion are endotoxin, sulfated mucopolysaccharides, and aggregated Abeta protein. Physiological activation appears to occur along the surface of endothelial cells both by the aforementioned contact-initiated reactions as well as bypass pathways that are independent of factor XII. Factor XII binds primarily to cell surface u-PAR (urokinase plasminogen activator receptor); HK binds to gC1qR via its light chain (domain 5) and to cytokeratin 1 by its heavy chain (domain 3) and, to a lesser degree, by its light chain. Prekallikrein circulates bound to HK (as does coagulation factor XI), and prekallikrein is thereby brought to the surface as HK binds. All cell-binding reactions are dependent on zinc ion. Endothelial cells (HUVECs) have bimolecular complexes of u-PAR-cytokeratin 1 and gC1qR-cytokeratin 1 at the cell surface plus free gC1qR, which is present in substantial molar excess. Factor XII appears to interact primarily with the u-PAR-cytokeratin 1 complex, whereas HK binds primarily to the gC1qR-cytokeratin 1 complex and to free gC1qR. Release of endothelial cell heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) or the enzyme prolylcarboxypeptidase leads to activation of the bradykinin-forming cascade by activating the prekallikrein-HK complex. In contrast to factor XIIa, neither will activate prekallikrein in the absence of HK, both reactions require zinc ion, and the stoichiometry suggests interaction of one molecule of Hsp90 (for example) with one molecule of prekallikrein-HK complex. The presence of factor XII, however, leads to a marked augmentation in reaction rate via the kallikrein feedback as well as to a change to classic enzyme-substrate kinetics. The circumstances in which activation is initiated by factor XII autoactivation or by these factor XII bypasses are yet to be defined. The pathologic conditions in which bradykinin generation appears important include hereditary and acquired C1 inhibitor deficiency, cough and angioedema due to ACE inhibitors, endotoxin shock, with contributions to conditions as diverse as Alzheimer's disease, stroke, control of blood pressure, and allergic diseases.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Animals
  • Bradykinin / metabolism*
  • Endothelial Cells / immunology
  • Endothelial Cells / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Immunity, Innate*
  • Inflammation* / immunology
  • Inflammation* / pathology
  • Inflammation* / physiopathology
  • Keratins / chemistry
  • Keratins / metabolism
  • Vasodilator Agents / metabolism*


  • Vasodilator Agents
  • Keratins
  • Bradykinin