We characterized the nearly complete coding sequence of the pig 2,4-dienoyl CoA reductase 1 (DECR1) gene, which encodes an enzyme involved in the beta-oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty enoyl-CoA esters and maps on a linoleic QTL located on Chromosome 4. Sequencing of a 937-bp fragment encompassing exons 2 and 10 revealed the existence of two missense SNP at exon 2 (C181 --> G181) and exon 5 (C458 -->G458). These two SNP are associated with Val (C) --> Leu (G) and Ser (C) --> Thr (G) conservative AA replacements at positions 61 and 153 of the DECR1 protein, respectively. Moreover, DECR1 genotyping in a representative sample of 184 pigs from the Large White, Pietrain, Iberian, Duroc, and Landrace breeds demonstrated the existence of disequilibrium linkage between these two SNP (Haplotype 1: C181C458; Haplotype 2: G181G458). An association analysis between DECR1 genotype and growth, carcass, and meat quality traits in a highly selected Landrace population (n = 470) revealed differences among genotypes for isocitrate dehydrogenase activity (highest posterior density [HPD] of 90%), longissimus thoracis pH (HPD of 95%), lightness (HPD of 90 to 95%), and redness (HPD of 95%). Because these associations were not consistently found in the three available genotype comparisons, we believe that exon 2 and 5 polymorphisms at the DECR1 gene might be in linkage disequilibrium with the true causal mutation influencing isocitrate dehydrogenase activity and muscle color and pH.