The respiratory burst oxidase

Adv Enzymol Relat Areas Mol Biol. 1992;65:49-95. doi: 10.1002/9780470123119.ch2.

Abstract

Sbarra and Karnovsky were the first to present evidence suggesting the presence in phagocytes of a special enzyme designed to generate reactive oxidants for purposes of host defense. In the years since their report appeared, a great deal has been learned about this enzyme, now known as the respiratory burst oxidase. It has been found to be a plasma membrane-bound heme- and flavin-containing enzyme, dormant in resting cells, that catalyzes the one-electron reduction of oxygen to O2- at the expense of NADPH: O2 + NADPH----O2- + NADP+ + H+ Its behavior in whole cells and its response to various activating stimuli have been described in detail, although important insights continue to emerge, as for example a very interesting new series of observations on differences in oxidase activation patterns between suspended and adherent cells. The enzyme has been shown by biochemical and genetic studies to consist of at least six components. In the resting cell, three of these components are in the cytosol and three in the plasma membrane, but when the cell passes from its resting to its activated state the cytosolic components are all transferred to the plasma membrane, presumably assembling the oxidase. Of the components initially bound to the membrane, two constitute cytochrome b558, a heme protein characteristic of the respiratory burst oxidase, and the third may represent an oxidase flavoprotein. With regard to the cytosolic components, one is a phosphoprotein and another is the NADPH-binding component, possibly a second oxidase flavoprotein. The nature of the third (p67phox) is a puzzle. Four of the six oxidase components have now been cloned and sequenced. These findings only scratch the surface, however, and many questions remain. How many oxidase components, for example, remain to be discovered, and how do they fit together to form the active enzyme? How is the route of activation of the oxidase integrated into the general signal transduction systems of the cell? How did the oxidase come to be? Could there be a widespread system that generates small amounts of O2- as an intercellular signaling molecule, as recent work is beginning to suggest, and did the ever-destructive respiratory burst oxidase arise from that innocuous system as the creation of some evolutionary Frankenstein--an oxidase from hell? Finally, will it be possible to develop drugs that specifically block the respiratory burst oxidase, and will such drugs prove to be clinically useful as anti-inflammatory agents?(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Animals
  • Cell Membrane / enzymology
  • Enzyme Activation
  • Granulomatous Disease, Chronic / enzymology
  • Humans
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Oxidoreductases / chemistry
  • Oxidoreductases / isolation & purification
  • Oxidoreductases / physiology*
  • Phagocytes / enzymology
  • Phosphoproteins / genetics
  • Phosphoproteins / metabolism
  • Protein Conformation
  • Respiratory Burst / physiology*

Substances

  • Phosphoproteins
  • Oxidoreductases