Palmoplantar keratodermas

Clin Dermatol. 2005 Jan-Feb;23(1):15-22. doi: 10.1016/j.clindermatol.2004.09.005.


The palmoplantar skin is a highly specialized tissue which is able to resist mechanical trauma and other physical stress. In recent years the more descriptive classification of keratodermas has switched to an exact molecular genetic view where gene functions are considered. Palmoplantar keratodermas can be separated in the following functional subgroups: disturbed gene fuctions in structural proteins (keratins), cornified envelope (loricrin, transglutaminase), cohesion (plakophilin, desmoplakin, desmoglein1), cell-to-cell communication (connexins), and transmembrane signal transduction (cathepsin C). This review intends to emphasize the typical clinical aspects and symptom complexes associated with palmoplantar keratodermas which enable the astute dermatologist to make a clinical diagnosis. In addition the molecular genetic knowledge on the topic is given which is necessary to confirm the clinical diagnosis.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Biopsy, Needle
  • Connexins / genetics
  • Desmosomes / genetics
  • Female
  • Genetic Predisposition to Disease*
  • Humans
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Incidence
  • Keratins / genetics
  • Keratoderma, Palmoplantar / diagnosis*
  • Keratoderma, Palmoplantar / epidemiology
  • Keratoderma, Palmoplantar / genetics*
  • Keratoderma, Palmoplantar, Diffuse / diagnosis
  • Keratoderma, Palmoplantar, Diffuse / epidemiology
  • Keratoderma, Palmoplantar, Diffuse / genetics
  • Male
  • Prognosis
  • Risk Assessment
  • Severity of Illness Index
  • Sex Distribution


  • Connexins
  • Keratins