Mutagenicity evaluation of Schistosoma spp. extracts by the umu-test and V79/HGPRT gene mutation assay

Parasitol Int. 2005 Mar;54(1):29-34. doi: 10.1016/j.parint.2004.08.004.


Schistosomiasis has been suspected of being a risk factor for various types of cancers for sometime, e.g., bladder cancer, colorectal cancer and hepatic cancer. Among them, the etiological relationship between urinary schistosomiasis and bladder cancer is now widely accepted. However, mechanisms of the carcinogenesis are still unclear. Here, we tested the mutagenicity of the parasite extracts by the umu-test and hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT) gene mutation assay, which both overcome disadvantages of the Ames plate assay. Adult worm extracts and egg extracts of Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma mansoni were tested. Under our experimental conditions, neither worm nor egg extracts were shown to have any mutagenicity in both tests even in the presence of S9 mix. Our results suggest that there is very little possibility of immediate gene mutation due to the parasite-derived substances in schistosomiasis-related carcinogenesis.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Carcinogens*
  • Cell Line
  • Cricetinae
  • DNA-Directed DNA Polymerase
  • Escherichia coli Proteins / genetics
  • Escherichia coli Proteins / metabolism*
  • Female
  • Hypoxanthine Phosphoribosyltransferase / genetics*
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred ICR
  • Mutagenicity Tests
  • Mutagens*
  • Mutation
  • Salmonella typhimurium / genetics
  • Salmonella typhimurium / metabolism
  • Schistosoma / classification
  • Schistosoma / growth & development
  • Schistosoma / metabolism*
  • Schistosoma haematobium / growth & development
  • Schistosoma haematobium / metabolism
  • Schistosoma mansoni / growth & development
  • Schistosoma mansoni / metabolism


  • Carcinogens
  • Escherichia coli Proteins
  • Mutagens
  • UmuC protein, E coli
  • Hypoxanthine Phosphoribosyltransferase
  • DNA-Directed DNA Polymerase