Effects of stage of maturity and cooking on the chemical composition of select mushroom varieties

J Agric Food Chem. 2005 Feb 23;53(4):1130-8. doi: 10.1021/jf048541l.


Select mushrooms were analyzed for proximate constituents and carbohydrate profiles either raw or cooked and at different stages of maturity. White button mushrooms (Agaricus biporus) contained high concentrations of ash (12.5 and 11.9% for immature and mature mushrooms, respectively). Starch and total dietary fiber (TDF) concentrations were higher in maitake (Grifola frondosa) and shiitake (Lentinus edodes) mushrooms. Crude protein (CP) and acid-hydrolyzed fat (AHF) were highest in crimini (Agaricus bisporus) and white button and maitake mushrooms, respectively. Chitin concentrations were highest in portabella (Agaricus bisporus) and enoki (Flammulina velutipes) mushrooms (8.0 and 7.7%, respectively). Oligosaccharides were found in low concentrations in some mushrooms. CP and TDF accounted for 86.4 and 49.3% of mushroom organic matter. Cooking increased starch, TDF, and AHF but decreased CP and chitin concentrations. The chitin concentration increased with mushroom maturity. These results detail the complete carbohydrate profile of several important mushroom varieties.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Agaricales / chemistry*
  • Agaricales / growth & development*
  • Agaricus / chemistry
  • Chitin / analysis
  • Dietary Fats / analysis
  • Dietary Fiber / analysis
  • Food Handling / methods*
  • Grifola / chemistry
  • Hot Temperature*
  • Monosaccharides / analysis
  • Oligosaccharides / analysis
  • Proteins / analysis
  • Uronic Acids / analysis
  • beta-Glucans / analysis


  • Dietary Fats
  • Dietary Fiber
  • Monosaccharides
  • Oligosaccharides
  • Proteins
  • Uronic Acids
  • beta-Glucans
  • Chitin