The aim of this study was to characterize the immune system profile in the uterine cervix of 17 human papillomavirus (HPV)-infected women, compared with 17 whom were coinfected with HIV-1. Five histologically normal cervices in immunocompetent women were used as controls. HPV infection was associated with a marked increase in cells expressing interleukin (IL)-6, interferon gamma (IFN-gamma), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). Coinfection by HPV and HIV-1 led to decreased expression of IL-6, TNF-alpha, and IFN-gamma. However, coinfection led to increased numbers of cells expressing IL-4, IL-10, and IL-8. Compared with the histologically normal cervices, increased numbers of macrophages (CD68, RFD7) and T lymphocytes (CD4, CD8) were seen in HPV-infected cervices; coinfection with HIV-1 was associated with a higher number of CD8 cells and lower number of CD68 cells. HPV DNA localized exclusively to the dysplastic squamous cells, whereas HIV-1 RNA was detected mainly in CD68-positive stromal cells. In conclusion, this study shows differential expression of various cytokines and classes of inflammatory cells, relative to HIV-1 infection and HPV coinfection, which may relate to the risk of transmission of HIV-1 and increased risk of cervical cancer in these women.