Purpose: To investigate the epidemiology of postoperative endophthalmitis (POE) following cataract surgery in Sweden during a 3-year period, using the framework of the Swedish National Cataract Register.
Methods: Clinically presumed cases of POE were reported in a prospective survey involving all Swedish ophthalmic surgical units except one. Data on results of the intraocular culture and visual outcome after infection, as well as patient age and gender and various elements of the surgical procedure, were collected.
Results: The nationwide incidence of POE was 0.0595%, representing 112 cases in 188 151 cataract operations. Gram-positive bacteria were the predominant aetiology, with an 84.6% share of culture-positive cases. A significantly decreased risk for POE was found for patients who had received prophylactic intracameral antibiotics (mainly cefuroxime) in comparison with those who had been treated with topical antibiotics only.
Conclusions: The prevalence of POE after cataract surgery in Sweden is at the lower end of the spectrum of incidence currently reported in the developed world. The administration of intracameral antibiotics may have contributed to these results.