Abstract Levels of selfing and resource allocation patterns were investigated in Schiedea salicaria (Caryophyllaceae), a gynodioecious species with high levels of inbreeding depression and nuclear control of male sterility. Selfing levels were higher in hermaphrodites than females, especially when adjusted for early acting inbreeding depression. The sexes of S. salicaria were similar in most allocation patterns including number of flowers and capsules per inflorescence, seeds per flower, and seed mass. Seeds produced by females had higher levels of germination than seeds of hermaphrodites, a likely result of high selfing levels and the expression of inbreeding depression in the progeny of hermaphrodites. Invasion of females in populations of S. salicaria is probably related to the expression of inbreeding depression at germination and in later life history stages. Comparisons with related species of Schiedea that also have nuclear control of male sterility suggest that reallocation of resources in hermaphrodites to male function occurs as females increase in frequency, but that resource reallocation is not important for the success of females when they first invade populations.