Linkage between developmental dyslexia (DD) and chromosome 6p has been replicated in a number of independent samples. Recent attempts to identify the gene responsible for the linkage have produced inconsistent evidence for association of DD with a number of genes in a 575-kb region of chromosome 6p22.2, including VMP, DCDC2, KIAA0319, TTRAP, and THEM2. We aimed to identify the specific gene or genes involved by performing a systematic, high-density (approximately 2-3-kb intervals) linkage disequilibrium screen of these genes in an independent sample, incorporating family-based and case-control designs in which dyslexia was defined as an extreme representation of reading disability. Using DNA pooling, we first observed evidence for association with 17 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 13 of which were located in the KIAA0319 gene (P<.01-.003). After redundant SNPs were excluded, 10 SNPs were individually genotyped in 223 subjects with DD and 273 controls. Those SNPs that were significant at P</=.05 were next genotyped in a semi-independent sample of 143 trios of probands with DD and their parents, to control for possible population stratification. Six SNPs showed significant evidence of association in both samples (P</=.04-.002), including a SNP (rs4504469) in exon 4 of the KIAA0319 gene that changes an amino acid (P=.002; odds ratio 1.5). Logistic regression analysis showed that two SNPs (rs4504469 and rs6935076) in the KIAA0319 gene best explained DD status. The haplotype composed of these two markers was significantly associated with DD (global P=.00001 in the case-control sample; P=.02 in trios). This finding was largely driven by underrepresentation of the most common haplotype in cases (P=.00003 in the case-control sample; P=.006 in trios; 1-degree-of-freedom tests). Our data strongly implicate KIAA0319 as a susceptibility gene for dyslexia. The gene product is expressed in brain, but its specific function is currently unknown.