Development of a multidimensional measure of tobacco dependence in adolescence

Addict Behav. 2005 Mar;30(3):501-15. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2004.07.006.


The objective of this research was to develop a multidimensional measure of tobacco dependence, sensitive to signs of incipient dependence and relevant to adolescents. A cross-sectional survey was conducted of students attending randomly selected high schools in two regions of British Columbia, Canada. Of the 3280 adolescents who completed the survey, 17% (n=562) indicated that they had smoked at least once in the month preceding the survey and were classified as "smokers." Ninety-one percent of the smokers (n=513) completed all or most of the items and comprised the sample for the analysis. The survey included a number of items related to smoking status and nicotine dependence, including the newly developed Dimensions of Tobacco-Dependence Scale (DTDS), a 54-item multidimensional measure of tobacco dependence. Exploratory factor analyses using MINRES was used to examine the dimensions of the DTDS. The measure was found to include four dimensions: social reinforcement, emotional reinforcement, sensory reinforcement, and physical reinforcement. All subscales had adequate reliability (Cronbach's alpha coefficients >.70).

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adolescent Behavior*
  • Adult
  • British Columbia / epidemiology
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Emotions
  • Factor Analysis, Statistical
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Models, Statistical
  • Population Surveillance / methods
  • Reinforcement, Psychology
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Sensation
  • Smoking / epidemiology*
  • Smoking / psychology
  • Social Perception
  • Tobacco Use Disorder / epidemiology