Voluntary alcohol intake in two rat lines selectively bred for learned helpless and non-helpless behavior

Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2005 Mar;178(2-3):125-32. doi: 10.1007/s00213-004-2013-5. Epub 2004 Oct 2.


Rationale: A high comorbidity between depression and alcoholism has been reported in several studies, but the mechanisms underlying this relationship remain unknown.

Objectives: We tested whether learned helplessness in rats as a model for depression is associated with enhanced alcohol intake and relapse behavior.

Methods: Congenital learned helplessness (cLH) and congenital non-learned helplessness (cNLH) rats were selectively bred for differences in an escape paradigm. Sucrose preference was tested at the first hour of the dark phase. In order to study an association with alcohol drinking behavior, rats underwent a free-choice procedure with access to water, and 5% and 20% alcohol solutions for 6 weeks. After acquisition of alcohol drinking behavior, the alcohol deprivation effect (ADE) was assessed. Sensitivity to the sedative-hypnotic effect of alcohol was measured by loss of the righting reflex.

Results: cLH rats showed significantly lower preference for sucrose solutions during the second half hour of the dark phase than cNLH rats. Alcohol intake of male cLH rats was not significantly different from that of male cNLH rats. In contrast, cLH female rats consumed higher amounts of alcohol than female cNLH rats. The ADE was more pronounced in female animals, although the magnitude of the ADE was similar in both cNLH and cLH female rats. The time to regain the righting reflex was significantly higher in both male and female cLH rats than in cNLH rats.

Conclusions: In summary, these data suggest that an inborn depressive-like behavior in female rats is associated with enhanced alcohol intake.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Alcohol Drinking / genetics*
  • Alcohol Drinking / psychology
  • Alcoholic Intoxication / genetics
  • Alcoholic Intoxication / psychology
  • Animals
  • Arousal / genetics
  • Crosses, Genetic
  • Depression / genetics*
  • Depression / psychology
  • Disease Models, Animal*
  • Female
  • Gene Expression Regulation / physiology
  • Helplessness, Learned*
  • Male
  • Orientation / physiology
  • Phenotype
  • Postural Balance / physiology
  • Rats
  • Rats, Inbred Strains
  • Selection, Genetic*
  • Sex Factors
  • Substance Withdrawal Syndrome / genetics