Objectives: This study was undertaken to investigate the outcome and prognostic factors in patients with ovarian germ cell malignancies (OGCMs).
Methods: A total of 93 patients with OGCMs were retrospectively reviewed, among whom 84 patients had primary treatment at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital (CGMH) between 1984 and 2003. The other nine patients were primarily treated outside and referred for follow-up (n = 1), adjuvant chemotherapy (n = 4), or salvage therapy after recurrence (n = 4). The clinicopathological and treatment-related characteristics were analyzed for association with the occurrence of tumor persistence/recurrence or death.
Results: Of the study patients, 32 had dysgerminoma (DSG), 29 immature teratoma (IMT), 23 endodermal sinus tumor, 7 mixed germ cell tumors, and 1 each had choriocarcinoma and embryonal carcinoma. The median follow-up of survivors was 66 months (range, 12-236 months). The median time to recurrence or progression was 8 months. There were 11 treatment failures with 6 died of cancer. The 5-year survival rate was 97.4% for those primarily treated at CGMH. Histology (DSG/IMT versus non-DSG/IMT) (P < 0.0001) and International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage (P = 0.001) were significantly associated with treatment failure, while histology (P = 0.0004), salvage high-dose chemotherapy (HD-CT) after primary chemotherapy failed (P = 0.0405), and residual tumor after salvage surgery (P = 0.0014) were significant prognostic factors for overall survival.
Conclusions: Prognosis of OGCMs is excellent if managed with standard treatment initially. Aggressive HD-CT with salvage surgery needs to be applied for recurrent/persistent disease after primary chemotherapy.