Reduction of acute cisplatin ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity in rats by oral administration of allopurinol and ebselen

Hear Res. 2005 Mar;201(1-2):81-9. doi: 10.1016/j.heares.2004.08.002.

Abstract

Cisplatin ototoxicity has been associated with the generation of toxic levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which can lead to injury or loss of outer hair cells in the organ of Corti, damage to the stria vascularis, and loss of spiral ganglion cells, resulting in permanent hearing loss. In an attempt to reduce the formation of ROS and to bolster the innate oxidative stress defenses of the cochlea, we tested individual and combined formulations of allopurinol, a xanthine oxidase inhibitor, and ebselen, a glutathione peroxidase mimic. We used an acute cisplatin toxicity rat model (16 mg/kg i.p.) to analyze allopurinol and ebselen alone and in combination for their ability to reduce cisplatin associated hearing loss and nephrotoxicity. The results from our studies indicate that a combined formulation of ebselen and allopurinol affords significant protection to the cochlea and kidney from cisplatin toxicity. In the cochlea, protection is dependent on the preservation of outer hair cell number, while in the kidney, protection is associated with the preservation of proximal tubular epithelia. Further evaluation of the chemoprotective effects of ebselen and allopurinol on cisplatin side effects in the presence of tumor appears warranted.

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Oral
  • Allopurinol / pharmacology*
  • Analysis of Variance
  • Animals
  • Antineoplastic Agents / toxicity*
  • Audiometry, Evoked Response
  • Azoles / pharmacology*
  • Cisplatin / toxicity*
  • Cochlea / drug effects
  • Female
  • Free Radical Scavengers / pharmacology*
  • Hearing Loss / chemically induced
  • Hearing Loss / prevention & control*
  • Kidney / drug effects
  • Neuroprotective Agents / pharmacology*
  • Organoselenium Compounds / pharmacology*
  • Rats
  • Rats, Inbred F344

Substances

  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Azoles
  • Free Radical Scavengers
  • Neuroprotective Agents
  • Organoselenium Compounds
  • ebselen
  • Allopurinol
  • Cisplatin