Axon branching is vital to the development of a highly interconnected and functional nervous system. Similar to axon growth and guidance, axon branching is subject to dynamic remodeling of the neuronal cytoskeleton. Coordinated remodeling of the cytoskeleton is achieved through parallel and direct targeting of both actin filaments and a subset of highly dynamic microtubules that probe the actin-rich peripheral domains in growth cones and emerging branch sites. A growing number of extracellular cues implicated in growth cone guidance also influence axon branch behavior. Mechanistic insight into the molecular basis of growth cone steering and axon branching reveals significant similarities but also uncovers important differences between these crucial events in the establishment of neural circuits.