Cognitive behavioural group training (CBGT) for patients with type 1 diabetes in persistent poor glycaemic control: who do we reach?

Patient Educ Couns. 2005 Mar;56(3):313-22. doi: 10.1016/j.pec.2004.03.005.


Approximately a quarter of adults with type 1 diabetes do not succeed in achieving satisfactory glycaemic control, partly due to problems with the demanding self-management regimen. To improve glycaemic control, interventions with a cognitive behavioural approach, aimed at modifying dysfunctional beliefs, reducing negative emotions and enhancing self-care practices are a potentially successful tool. Little is known about the reach of such an approach. This article describes characteristics of participants in a randomized, controlled trial of cognitive behavioural group training for patients with type 1 diabetes in poor glycaemic control. Results show that outpatients from seven hospitals in the area of Amsterdam, selected on long-standing high HbA1c and volunteering to participate, report high levels of psychological distress and depressive symptoms. Furthermore, self-care behaviours were perceived as important, but burdensome. Diabetes-specific self-efficacy was relatively low. It is concluded that this selected group of adults with type 1 diabetes would potentially benefit from a cognitive-behavioural intervention in order to reduce negative emotions, enhance diabetes self-efficacy, self-care behaviour and glycaemic outcomes.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Multicenter Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adaptation, Psychological
  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Cognitive Behavioral Therapy / organization & administration*
  • Cost of Illness
  • Depression / diagnosis
  • Depression / etiology
  • Depression / prevention & control
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / complications
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / metabolism
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / prevention & control*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / psychology*
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Motivation
  • Negativism
  • Netherlands
  • Outpatient Clinics, Hospital
  • Patient Compliance / psychology*
  • Psychotherapy, Group / organization & administration*
  • Quality of Life
  • Self Care / psychology*
  • Self Care / standards
  • Stress, Psychological / diagnosis
  • Stress, Psychological / etiology
  • Stress, Psychological / prevention & control