We examined the effects of three forms of host plant resistance in tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum, on the potato aphid, Macrosiphum euphorbiae. Mi-1.2, a resistance gene (R-gene) in tomato that deters aphid feeding, reduced the population growth of both potato aphid isolates tested, although it appeared to have a greater impact on isolate WU11 than on isolate WU12. The results suggest that there may be quantitative differences in virulence between these two aphid isolates. We also examined two distinct forms of acquired resistance in tomato, jasmonic acid (JA)-dependent and salicylic acid (SA)-dependent induced defenses. Exogenous foliar application of JA triggered expression of a JA-inducible proteinase inhibitor in tomato cultivars with and without Mi-1.2, although the effects of treatment on aphid performance differed between these cultivars. JA-treatment reduced aphid population growth on a susceptible tomato cultivar that lacks Mi-1.2, but did not significantly enhance or inhibit aphid control on a near-isogenic resistant tomato cultivar that carries this gene. Foliar application of an SA analog, benzothiadiazole (BTH), was used to induce SA-dependent defenses. BTH treatment reduced the population growth of both aphid isolates on a susceptible tomato cultivar, and also enhanced aphid control on a resistant cultivar. The results indicate that both SA- and JA-dependent acquired resistance in tomato have a direct negative effect on a phloem-feeding insect. Furthermore, this study demonstrates that acquired resistance and R-gene-mediated resistance can interact for enhanced suppression of insect herbivores.