Examination of 700 children with chronic and relapsing respiratory tract infections showed that during the period from 1996 to 2003 Moraxella catarrhalis strains were isolated from the sputum of 5.5-9.7% of the patients. The frequency of the emergence was the third after Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae. In healthy children M. catarrhalis was isolated in 2.7% of the cases. The most frequent detection of M. catarrhalis was stated in children under 1 year (4.5%). The antibiotic susceptibility tests revealed that the majority of the M. catarrhalis isolates had beta-lactamase activity, were resistant to benzylpenicillin, ampicillin and lincomycin and highly susceptible to amoxycillin/clavulanate, macrolides, certain cephalosporins and levofloxacin. The isolates were most frequent in the patients of the rather severe contingent (congenital lung disease, alveolitis, chronic pneumonia, bronchial asthma). In such patients the bronchoobstructive syndrome was more frequent (46.6%). High frequency of the affection of the upper respiratory tracts in the examined children was stated (62.1%).