In vitro coexpression and pharmacological rescue of mutant gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptors causing hypogonadotropic hypogonadism in humans expressing compound heterozygous alleles

J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005 May;90(5):3001-8. doi: 10.1210/jc.2004-2071. Epub 2005 Feb 22.


We analyzed the function of mutant GnRH receptor (GnRHR) pairs associated with compound heterozygous patients showing complete or partial forms of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. We did this to examine potential interactions between misfolded mutants that may influence net receptor function and response to pharmacological rescue. Nine pairs of GnRHR mutants and an unreported combination (L314X((stop))/R262Q) were studied. Coexpression of each pair of mutants in COS-7 cells resulted in an active predominant effect (Q106R/L266R, A171T/Q106R, T32I/C200Y, and R262Q/A129D mutant GnRHR pairs), an additive effect (R262Q/Q106R, N10K/Q106R, and R262Q/Y284C human GnRHR pairs), or a dominant-negative effect (L314X((stop))/Q106R, Q106R+S217R/R262Q, and L314X((stop))/R262Q GnRHRs). For all combinations, addition of the pharmacoperone IN3 increased both agonist binding and effector coupling. The IN3 response was unpredictable because responses could be either similar, higher, or lower, compared with that exhibited by the less affected mutant. The clinical phenotype in patients expressing complex heterozygous alleles appears to be dictated by both the contribution from each mutant and a dominant-negative effect similar to that reported for mutants and wild-type receptor. Depending on the genotype, partial or full restoration of receptor function in response to pharmacological chaperones may be achievable goals in patients bearing inactivating mutations in the GnRHR gene.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Alleles
  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Animals
  • COS Cells
  • Heterozygote
  • Hypogonadism / genetics*
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Mutation*
  • Receptors, LHRH / chemistry
  • Receptors, LHRH / genetics*


  • Receptors, LHRH