Entamoeba histolytica is an intestinal parasite and the causative agent of amoebiasis, which is a significant source of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Here we present the genome of E. histolytica, which reveals a variety of metabolic adaptations shared with two other amitochondrial protist pathogens: Giardia lamblia and Trichomonas vaginalis. These adaptations include reduction or elimination of most mitochondrial metabolic pathways and the use of oxidative stress enzymes generally associated with anaerobic prokaryotes. Phylogenomic analysis identifies evidence for lateral gene transfer of bacterial genes into the E. histolytica genome, the effects of which centre on expanding aspects of E. histolytica's metabolic repertoire. The presence of these genes and the potential for novel metabolic pathways in E. histolytica may allow for the development of new chemotherapeutic agents. The genome encodes a large number of novel receptor kinases and contains expansions of a variety of gene families, including those associated with virulence. Additional genome features include an abundance of tandemly repeated transfer-RNA-containing arrays, which may have a structural function in the genome. Analysis of the genome provides new insights into the workings and genome evolution of a major human pathogen.