Background: Along with the increased life expectancy in cystic fibrosis and the remarkable progress in its management and therapy, issues of female fertility and pregnancy are frequently raised. These include infertility, severity of lung disease, pancreatic insufficiency, poor nutritional status, glucose intolerance and diabetes, drug safety, and long-term maternal and neonatal outcome.
Objective: To describe the experience of our CF center in the management of CF pregnant woman from 1977 to 2004.
Methods: We analyzed 27 years of records (1977-2004) of the national CF registry of all CF women who wished to conceive and became pregnant.
Results: Eight CF women (mean age 24 +/- 4.5 years) who wished to conceive had 11 pregnancies and delivered 12 neonates. The pregestational results of forced expiratory volume per 1 second varied significantly among patients (59 +/- 23%), yet most (10/11) stayed stable throughout the pregnancy course. Maternal deterioration in CF condition occurred in only one mother, necessitating cesarean section. In 9 of the 11 pregnancies the women were pancreatic-insufficient. Of the 11 pregnancies, 2 CF women had diabetes mellitus and 3 developed gestational diabetes. One pregnancy occurred in a mother with a transplanted lung. Of the 12 neonates, 3 were preterm and one was born with esophageal atresia. No miscarriages, terminations or neonatal mortalities occurred. Although most of the CF mothers had FEV1 below 55% before pregnancy, the maternal and neonatal outcome was favorable and lung function tests generally remained stable.
Conclusions: We conclude that pregnancy in CF is feasible with a positive maternal and neonatal outcome. Early participation of the CF physician in the wish of the CF woman to reproduce is required. The integration of an intensive multidisciplinary approach during pregnancy, which includes close follow-up of maternal and fetal condition by the various specialists, should ensure an optimal outcome.