Depressive symptoms, sex, and risk for Alzheimer's disease

Ann Neurol. 2005 Mar;57(3):381-7. doi: 10.1002/ana.20405.


Depression associates with increased risk for dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD), although it is unclear whether it represents an actual risk factor or a prodrome. To determine the relative hazard of premorbid depressive symptomatology for development of dementia and AD, we studied risk for incident dementia and AD over a 14-year period in 1,357 community-dwelling men and women participating in the 40-year prospective Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Screening for depressive symptoms, comprehensive medical and neuropsychological evaluations were prospectively collected every 2 years. Time-dependent proportional hazards of development of AD or dementia were calculated separately for men and women, with symptoms of depression detected at 2-, 4-, and 6-year intervals before onset of dementia symptoms. Vascular risk factors were analyzed as covariates. Premorbid depressive symptoms significantly increased risk for dementia, particularly AD in men but not in women. Hazard ratios were approximately two times greater than for individuals without history of depressive symptoms, an effect independent of vascular disease. We conclude that the impact of depressive symptoms on risk for dementia and AD may vary with sex. Further studies assessing separately the role of depression as a risk factor in men and women are necessary.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Alzheimer Disease / complications*
  • Baltimore / epidemiology
  • Dementia / complications
  • Dementia / epidemiology
  • Depression / epidemiology*
  • Depression / etiology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prospective Studies
  • Residence Characteristics
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk*
  • Sex Characteristics*
  • Sex Factors
  • Time Factors