Advances in understanding aging processes and their consequences are leading to the development of therapies to slow or reverse adverse changes formerly considered to be "normal" aging and processes that underlie multiple age-related conditions. Estimating the effectiveness of candidate aging therapies, whose effects on human aging may require many years to determine, is a particular challenge. Strategies for identifying candidate interventions can be developed through multiple approaches, including the screening of molecular targets and pathways in vitro and in animal models, informed as well by evidence from human genetic and epidemiologic data. A number of recently established programs and networks can serve as resources for such research. For all these research approaches, from in vitro molecular studies to clinical trials, contributions of cell and molecular biology are crucial and offer the prospect of therapeutic advances that address fundamental biological processes as well as the clinically important challenges of aging.