Pathophysiological mechanisms of acute vascular thrombosis are not fully understood. It has been suggested that different infectious pathogens are responsible agents of thrombotic disorders. The infection hypothesis is supported by an increasing number of reports on the interaction between acute infection and coagulation. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is supposed to play an important role in apparently unprovoked thrombosis. We reviewed all human in vitro and in vivo studies on the influence of human CMV infection on the coagulation system, as well as all case reports of acute thrombosis during acute human CMV infection. In the published literature there is mounting evidence that human CMV may play a role in thrombotic disorders. Definitive conclusions, however, cannot be drawn, although the in vitro studies are convincing and offer insight in the pathogenesis.