Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is characterized by organized thromboemboli that obstruct the pulmonary vascular bed. Although CTEPH is a serious complication of acute symptomatic pulmonary embolism in 4% of cases, signs, symptoms and classical risk factors for venous thromboembolism are lacking. The aim of the present study was to identify medical conditions conferring an increased risk of CTEPH. We performed a case-control-study comparing 109 consecutive CTEPH patients to 187 patients with acute pulmonary embolism that was confirmed by a high probability lung scan. Splenectomy (odds ratio=13, 95% CI 2.7-127), ventriculo-atrial (VA-) shunt for the treatment of hydrocephalus (odds ratio=13, 95% CI 2.5-129) and chronic inflammatory disorders, such as osteomyelitis and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, odds ratio=67, 95% CI 7.9-8832) were associated with an increased risk of CTEPH.