Modeling insulin action for development of a closed-loop artificial pancreas

Diabetes Technol Ther. 2005 Feb;7(1):94-108. doi: 10.1089/dia.2005.7.94.


Three models of glucose homeostasis are compared in terms of their steady-state dose-response characteristics, how they characterize glucose distribution kinetics, and how they characterize the dynamics of insulin action. The three models [minimal model, AIDA (Automated Insulin Dosage Advisor), and a model by Sorensen] are used to discuss a wider variety of questions related to metabolic modeling. Simulations are performed comparing each model's response to an intravenous glucose tolerance test, with and without incremental insulin responses, to existing data in individuals with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Predicted changes in blood glucose following a subcutaneous bolus of insulin or an incremental increase in basal insulin delivery are simulated. From these results, the models are evaluated as potential candidates for simulating changes in treatment and developing a closed-loop insulin delivery algorithm. While no consensus model is proposed, relevant issues needing to be addressed are highlighted.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Algorithms
  • Blood Glucose / metabolism*
  • Computer Simulation
  • Equipment Design
  • Glucose Tolerance Test
  • Homeostasis
  • Humans
  • Kinetics
  • Models, Biological
  • Pancreas, Artificial*


  • Blood Glucose