Grapefruit and oroblanco enhance hepatic detoxification enzymes in rats: possible role in protection against chemical carcinogenesis

J Agric Food Chem. 2005 Mar 9;53(5):1828-32. doi: 10.1021/jf048547a.


Citrus fruits are considered to be functional foods that promote good health. This study was carried out to assess the effect of oroblanco and grapefruit consumption on hepatic detoxification enzymes. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were provided with either regular drinking water (control) or experimental treatments of oroblanco juice, grapefruit juice, or a sugar mix for 6 weeks. After 1 week of treatment, half the animals in each group were injected with the procarcinogen 1,2-dimethylhydrazine. Grapefruit juice significantly increased activity and expression of the hepatic phase I enzyme, cytochrome P450 CYP1A1, with a marked trend toward enhanced NAD(P)H:quinone reductase (QR) activity. Oroblanco juice significantly increased glutathione S-transferase phase II enzyme activity along with CYP1A1 expression and a notable trend toward increased activity of both CYP1A1 and QR. These results suggest that these citrus fruits are bifunctional inducers, modulating both phase I and phase II drug-metabolizing enzymes to enhance hepatic detoxification.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Beverages
  • Breeding
  • Citrus paradisi*
  • Citrus*
  • Crosses, Genetic
  • Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A1 / genetics
  • Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A1 / metabolism
  • Diet*
  • Fruit*
  • Gene Expression
  • Glutathione Transferase / metabolism
  • Inactivation, Metabolic
  • Liver / enzymology*
  • Male
  • NAD(P)H Dehydrogenase (Quinone) / metabolism
  • Rats
  • Rats, Sprague-Dawley


  • Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A1
  • NAD(P)H Dehydrogenase (Quinone)
  • Glutathione Transferase