L-Arginine (L-Arg) has been widely used as an enhancer of protein renaturation. The mechanism behind its action is still not fully understood. Using hen egg white lysozyme as a model protein, we present data that clearly demonstrate the suppression of the aggregation of denatured protein by L-Arg. By chemical modification of free cysteines, a series of unfolded lysozyme species were obtained that served as models for unfolded and intermediate states during the process of oxidative refolding. An increased equilibrium solubility of unfolded species and intermediates in the presence of L-Arg seems to be its major mechanism of action.