The pharmacokinetics of YM-64227 (4-cyclohexyl-1-ethyl-7-methylpyrido[2,3-d]-pyrimidine-2-(1H)-one), a novel and selective phosphodiesterase type 4 inhibitor, was characterized in beagle dogs. Based on the plasma parent drug to major hydroxylated metabolite ratio, 21 dogs were phenotyped as 16 extensive metabolizers (EM) and five poor metabolizers (PM). Nucleotide sequences of CYPs 1A2, 2B11, 2C21, 2D15, 2E1 and 3A12 were investigated in the EM and PM dogs. A CYP1A2 1117 C>T single nucleotide polymorphism was found, which resulted in an amino acid change from an Arg codon to a stop codon at position 373. All dogs phenotyped as PM were T/T homozygous, whereas EMs were C/C homozygous and C/T heterozygous. In Western blotting of liver microsomes, CYP1A protein expression was detected in the C/C and C/T types, but not in the T/T type. Of 65 dogs genotyped using genome DNA, the frequencies of the C and T alleles were 0.61 and 0.39, respectively, suggesting approximately 15% of the dogs would not express the CYP1A2 protein. The findings provide a coherent explanation for the inter-individual variability in the pharmacokinetics of CYP1A2 substrate drugs in dogs.