Background: It has recently been shown that Lactobacillus farciminis treatment exerts an anti-inflammatory effect in trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis partly through a nitric oxide release by this strain. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether L. farciminis treatment shares also the general mechanisms of action involved in the beneficial effect of probiotics in the colonic inflammatory process.
Methods: Rats received L. farciminis for 15 days before and 4 days after intracolonic administration of TNBS or vehicle. The following parameters were evaluated: macroscopic damage of colonic mucosa, myeloperoxidase activity, cytokine mucosal levels, bacterial profile in colonic content and mucosa, bacterial translocation and colonic paracellular permeability.
Results: In the absence of TNBS, L. farciminis treatment reduced colonic paracellular permeability and increased the IL-10 level in the colonic wall. TNBS administration induced colonic macroscopic damage, associated with an increase of myeloperoxidase activity, bacterial translocation, colonic paracellular permeability and IL-1beta mucosal level, and a decrease in IL-10 mucosal level. Moreover, the bacterial profile of colonic content and mucosa was modified. All these alterations were abolished or significantly reduced by L. farciminis treatment.
Conclusions: As previously shown, L. farciminis treatment improves TNBS-induced colitis. This study indicates that, in addition to the nitric oxide released by this bacterial strain, the anti-inflammatory action of L. farciminis involves also normalization of colonic microflora, prevention of bacterial translocation, enhancement of barrier integrity and a decrease in the IL-1beta mucosal level.