Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by parkinsonism unresponsive to dopaminergic therapy, cerebellar ataxia, and dysautonomia. Neuropathology shows a characteristic neuronal multisystem degeneration that is associated with widespread oligodendroglial alpha-synuclein (alpha-SYN) inclusions. Presently no animal model completely replicates the specific neuropathology of MSA. Here we investigated the behavioral and pathological features resulting from oligodendroglial alpha-SYN overexpression in transgenic mice exposed to mitochondrial inhibition by 3-nitropropionic acid. In transgenic mice 3-nitropropionic acid induced or augmented motor deficits that were associated with MSA-like pathology including striatonigral degeneration and olivopontocerebellar atrophy. Widespread astrogliosis and microglial activation were also observed in the presence of alpha-SYN in oligodendrocytes. Our results indicate that combined mitochondrial inhibition and overexpression of oligodendroglial alpha-SYN generates a novel model of MSA that may be useful for evaluating both pathogenesis and treatment strategies.