Cyanobacteria are the only bacterial species found to have a circadian clock. We used DNA microarrays to examine circadian expression patterns in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803. Our analysis identified 54 (2%) and 237 (9%) genes that exhibited circadian rhythms under stringent and relaxed filtering conditions, respectively. The expression of most cycling genes peaked around the time of transition from subjective day to night, suggesting that the main role of the circadian clock in Synechocystis is to adjust the physiological state of the cell to the upcoming night environment. There were several chromosomal regions where neighboring genes were expressed with similar circadian patterns. The physiological functions of the cycling genes were diverse and included a wide variety of metabolic pathways, membrane transport, and signal transduction. Genes involved in respiration and poly(3-hydroxyalkanoate) synthesis showed coordinated circadian expression, suggesting that the regulation is important for the supply of energy and carbon source in the night. Genes involved in transcription and translation also followed circadian cycling patterns. These genes may be important for output of the rhythmic information generated by the circadian clock. Our findings provided critical insights into the importance of the circadian clock on cellular physiology and the mechanism of clock-controlled gene regulation.