We have previously shown that amotosalen HCl (S-59 psoralen)-treated donor splenocytes, which have limited proliferative capacity in vitro, can protect major histocompatibility complex-mismatched bone marrow transplant (BMT) recipients from lethal murine cytomegalovirus infection without causing graft-versus-host disease. In this study, we further investigated the effects of amotosalen-treated donor T cells on immune reconstitution after allogeneic BMT. We were surprised to find that amotosalen-treated donor T cells persisted long-term in vivo, comprising 6% to 10% on average of the T-cell compartment of transplant recipients at 4 months after transplantation. Donor T cells derived from amotosalen-treated splenocytes were predominantly polyclonal CD44 hi/int CD8 + memory T cells and were functionally active, synthesizing interferon gamma in response to stimulation with murine cytomegalovirus antigen. Amotosalen-treated donor T cells, reisolated from BMT recipients' spleens >/=4 months after transplantation, proliferated in vitro, thus indicating repair of amotosalen-mediated DNA cross-links. Compared with infusion of untreated donor splenocytes, amotosalen-treated cells enhanced thymopoiesis by bone marrow-derived stem cells in BMT recipients. However, amotosalen treatment abrogated the thymopoietic activity of lymphoid progenitor cells among the donor splenocytes. Thus, infusion of amotosalen-treated donor T cells produced rapid immune reconstitution after major histocompatibility complex-mismatched BMT by transferring long-lived polyclonal memory T cells with antiviral activity and also by enhancing bone marrow-derived thymopoiesis. This is a novel approach to adoptive immunotherapy in allogeneic BMT.