The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro immunomodulatory effects of zoledronic acid (Zol) on peripheral blood Vgamma9/Vdelta2 (gammadelta) T cells of normal donors and multiple myeloma (MM) patients. gammadelta T cells were stimulated with Zol and low doses of interleukin-2 (IL-2), and then analyzed for proliferation, cytokine production, and generation of effector activity against myeloma cell lines and primary myeloma cells. Proliferation of gammadelta T cells was observed in 100% of normal donors and 50% of MM patients. gammadelta T cells produced IFN-gamma, surface mobilized the CD107a and CD107b antigens, and exerted direct cell-to-cell antimyeloma activity irrespective of the ability to proliferate to Zol and IL-2. The memory phenotype was predominant in the MM gammadelta T cells that proliferated in response to Zol (responders), whereas effector cells were predominant in those that did not (nonresponders). Zol induced antimyeloma activity through the monocyte-dependent activation of gammadelta T cells and by enhancing the immunosensitivity of myeloma cells to gammadelta T cells. Mevastatin, a specific inhibitor of hydroxy-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase, completely abrogated this antimyeloma activity.