Purpose: To determine the prevalence of uveal effusion in acute and chronic primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) or primary angle closure (PAC) and to compare it with the prevalence in eyes with open-angle glaucoma (OAG) or ocular hypertension.
Design: Prospective consecutive case series.
Participants: Five hundred one eyes of 351 consecutive patients with PAC and 156 eyes of 116 randomly selected primary OAG or ocular hypertension patients. The PAC group included 40 eyes of 35 patients with acute PACG and 30 unaffected fellow eyes, 39 eyes and 35 fellow eyes with a history of acute PACG, and 357 eyes with chronic PAC.
Methods: Ultrasound biomicroscopic examination was performed to diagnose uveal effusion and to measure anterior chamber depth (ACD).
Main outcome measures: Presence of uveal effusion and ACD.
Results: Uveal effusion was demonstrated in 23 eyes (58%) with acute PACG and 7 fellow eys (23%) (chi2 = 8.17, P = 0.0043). Among eyes with chronic PAC, uveal effusion was present in 69 [corrected](14%[corrected]), a higher prevalence than was found in open-angle patients (2 eyes [1.3%]) (chi2 = 19.3, P<0.001). In the chronic PAC group, the ACD of phakic eyes with uveal effusion (1.92+/-0.42 mm) was significantly shallower than that of phakic eyes without effusion (2.06+/-0.32 mm) (P = 0.019).
Conclusions: Uveal effusion diagnosed by ultrasound biomicroscopy is a special feature in PAC, and is prevalent in acute PACG. Uveal effusion in phakic eyes with PAC is associated with shallowing of ACD.