In a prospective study of gender and TB outcomes, 552 newly diagnosed smear-positive patients throughout the Syrian Arab Republic were interviewed at recruitment (from January 2002 to July 2002) and followed until the end of treatment. Delay in diagnosis was significantly longer among males. Significant differences between males and females were noted in relation to the place they usually use to seek care. Gender did not seem to affect knowledge and attitudes of TB patients. Although the women reported more barriers to seeking care, compliance with treatment tended to be higher and the treatment success rate was significantly higher among females than males. Multivariate analysis showed that male sex was a significant predictor of a negative treatment outcome, after controlling for other significant sociodemographic and health care related variables.