Field evaluation of latex agglutination test for detecting urinary antigens in visceral leishmaniasis in Sudan

East Mediterr Health J. 2003 Jul;9(4):844-55.


A latex agglutination test to detect urinary antigens for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) was studied. In 204 patients with suspected VL, KAtex had a sensitivity of 95.2% with good agreement with microscopy smears but poor agreement with 4 different serology tests. It was also positive in 2 confirmed VL cases co-infected with HIV. In all K4tex-positive confirmed cases actively followed up after treatment, the test became negative 1 month after completion of treatment. While IC4tex had a specificity of 100% in healthy endemic and non-endemic controls, the direct agglutination test (DAT) was positive in 14% of the KAtex-negative healthy endemic controls. KAtex is a simple addition to the diagnostics of VL particularly at field level and as a complementary test for the diagnosis of VL in smear-negative cases with positive DAT results.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Validation Study

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Animals
  • Antigens, Protozoan / urine*
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Endemic Diseases / statistics & numerical data
  • Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay / standards
  • Female
  • Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect / standards
  • Humans
  • Immunoblotting / standards
  • Infant
  • Latex Fixation Tests / methods*
  • Latex Fixation Tests / standards
  • Leishmania donovani / immunology*
  • Leishmaniasis, Visceral / diagnosis*
  • Leishmaniasis, Visceral / epidemiology
  • Leishmaniasis, Visceral / immunology
  • Leishmaniasis, Visceral / urine*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Parasitology / standards
  • Prognosis
  • Sensitivity and Specificity
  • Sudan / epidemiology


  • Antigens, Protozoan