Fear and anxiety are common experiences throughout childhood and adolescence. Anxiety disorders, along with depression and dysthymia, are characterized as internalizing disorders; they stand in distinction from the externalizing disorders representing such conditions as oppositional-defiant disorder and conduct disorder. Clinicians evaluating anxiety disorders in college youth face the task of differentiating normal, transient, developmentally appropriate expression of anxiety from pathologic states of anxiety. The developmental course of anxiety and depression, its appropriateness, and its boundaries are areas of research and interest. A wide clinical perspective is necessary to effectively engage the assessment process. The treatment of anxiety and depression in youth is ideally multi-modal, involving medication, psychotherapy, and psychosocial interventions. This article focuses on assessment and treatment of anxiety and depression. These are presented separately, although areas of overlap often are encountered in practice.