The Meg1/Grb10 protein has been implicated as an adapter protein in the signaling pathways from insulin receptor (IR) and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) in vitro. To elucidate its in vivo function, four independent Meg1/Grb10 transgenic mouse lines were established, and the effects of excess Meg1/Grb10 on both postnatal growth and glucose metabolism were examined. All of the Meg1/Grb10 transgenic mice showed growth retardation after weaning (3-4 weeks), which indicates that ectopic overexpression of Meg1/Grb10 inhibits postnatal growth that is mediated by IGF1 via IGF1R. In addition, the mice became hyperinsulinemic owing to high levels of insulin resistance, which demonstrates that Meg1/Grb10 also modulates the insulin receptor cascade negatively in vivo. Type II diabetes arose frequently in the two transgenic lines, which also showed impaired glucose tolerance. In these mice, severe atrophy of the pancreatic acinus cells was associated with high-level production of Meg1/Grb10 in the pancreas. These results suggest that Meg1/Grb10 inhibits the function of both insulin and IGF1 receptors in these cells, since a similar phenotype has been reported for Ir and Igf1r double knockout mice. Taken together, these results indicate that Meg1/Grb10 interacts with both insulin and IGF1 receptors in vivo, and negatively regulates the IGF growth pathways via these receptors.