The three diploid (B. nigra, B. oleracea, B. campestris) and three allotetraploid (B. carinata, B. juncea, B. napus) species of Brassica, known as the "U-triangle" are one of the best model systems for the study of polyploidy. Numerous molecular investigations have provided a wealth of new insights into the polyploid origin and changes during the evolution of Brassica, but there are still many controversial aspects of their relationship and evolution. Interpretation of genome changes during evolution requires individual chromosome identification within the genome and clear distinction of genomes within the allotetraploid. The aim of this study was to identify individual chromosomes of B. juncea (genome AABB; 2n = 4x = 36) and to determine their genomic origin. Fluorescence in situ hybridization with 5S and 45S rDNA probes enabled discrimination of a substantial number of chromosomes, providing chromosomal landmarks for 20 out of 36 chromosomes of B. juncea. Additionally, along with double target genomic in situ hybridization, it allowed assignment of all chromosomes to either the A or B genomes.
Copyright 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.