Purpose: Dentists may be the first health care professionals to recognize unusual and abnormal oral movements collectively termed oral dyskinesias. The aims of this clinical overview are to raise the dental community's awareness about this important and complex topic and describe the clinical features and management of the main entities.
Materials and methods: A MEDLINE search of the different entities reported in the English and French literature was conducted. The main findings of a field study on oral dyskinesia were also reviewed.
Results: Involuntary movement disorders are often drug related. In other cases, excessive oral movements may occur at any age in relation to various neuropsychiatric conditions. Orofacial dystonia apparently triggered by dental procedures has also been reported. Edentulousness has been associated with oral stereotypes. In a survey of 352 edentulous elderly individuals attending daycare centers, only 7% displayed visible oral sterotypes, and ill-fitting dentures were suggested as a possible triggering factor for the majority.
Conclusion: A multidisciplinary evaluation is desirable in the care of individuals with oral dyskinesia and in the selection of those who may benefit from a prosthodontic approach. A good knowledge of potentially offending drugs may allow avoidance of unnecessary procedures.