Osteoporosis affects over 10 million Americans, including over 2 million men. Dentistry is in a position to work alongside medicine to assist the population in preventing and coping with this condition. This article provides an overview of osteoporosis, including its causes, assessment, prevention, and treatment. Various pharmacologic agents are reviewed, including bisphosphonates, selective estrogen receptor modulators, calcitonin, anabolic agents, and fluoride. The article also discusses the dentist's role in prevention, risk assessment, diagnosis, nutrition counseling, and evaluating the impact of the disease and its treatment on dental management and treatment planning. As dental implants become more in demand, the prognosis for and potential complications of implant therapy in patients with osteoporosis are a matter of intense interest.