Multiple risk factor intervention in chronic kidney disease: management of cardiac disease in chronic kidney disease patients

Med Clin North Am. 2005 May;89(3):511-23. doi: 10.1016/j.mcna.2004.12.002.


This article describes the relationship between CVD and CKD, the current state of knowledge regarding medical interventions, and underscores the importance of attending to both CVD and kidney disease aspects in each individual. The burden of cardiac disease in CKD patients is high with severe LVH, dilated cardiomyopathy and coronary artery disease occurring frequently. This predisposes to congestive heart failure, angina, myocardial infarction, and death. Multiple risk factors for cardiac disease exist and include hypertension, diabetes, smoking, anemia, abnormal calcium and phosphate metabolism, inflammation, and LVH. The efficacy of risk factor intervention has not been established in these populations, although there is good evidence for good blood pressure control, partial correction of anemia, treatment of dyslipidemia, cessation of tobacco use, correction of divalent abnormalities, and aspirin us. Appropriate use of ACE inhibitors, beta-blockers, and statins should be encouraged.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Cardiovascular Diseases / complications*
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / therapy*
  • Humans
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / complications*
  • Risk Factors