Complications of chronic kidney disease: anemia, mineral metabolism, and cardiovascular disease

Med Clin North Am. 2005 May;89(3):549-61. doi: 10.1016/j.mcna.2004.12.004.


This article focuses on the importance of three major complications of chronic kidney disease: (1) anemia, (2) calcium-phosphorus regulation and bone disease, and (3) cardiovascular risk profiling and treatment. The arguments for early and effective intervention have been amply made with respect to these three complications. Substantive trial data are sorely need to provide the definitive evidence that effective treatment of these complications results in better outcomes.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Anemia / etiology*
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / etiology*
  • Humans
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / complications*
  • Metabolic Diseases / etiology*