We have developed two novel tuberculosis (TB) vaccines: a DNA vaccine combination expressing mycobacterial heat shock protein 65 (Hsp65) and interleukin-12 (IL-12) by using the hemagglutinating virus of Japan (HVJ)-liposome (HSP65+IL-12/HVJ) and a recombinant BCG harboring the 72f fusion gene (72f rBCG). These vaccines provide remarkable protective efficacy in mouse and guinea pig models, as compared to the current by available BCG vaccine. In the present study, we extended our studies to a cynomolgus monkey model, which is currently the best animal model of human tuberculosis, to evaluate the HSP65+IL-12/HVJ and 72f rBCG vaccines. Vaccination with HSP65+IL-12/HVJ as well as 72f rBCG vaccines provided better protective efficacy as assessed by the Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate, chest X-ray findings and immune responses than BCG. Most importantly, HSP65+IL-12/HVJ resulted in an increased survival for over a year. This is the first report of successful DNA vaccination and recombinant BCG vaccination against M. tuberculosis in the monkey model.