Timeliness of childhood vaccinations in the United States: days undervaccinated and number of vaccines delayed

JAMA. 2005 Mar 9;293(10):1204-11. doi: 10.1001/jama.293.10.1204.


Context: Only 18% of children in the United States receive all vaccinations at the recommended times or acceptably early.

Objective: To determine the extent of delay of vaccination during the first 24 months of life.

Design, setting, and participants: The 2003 National Immunization Survey was conducted by random-digit dialing of households and mailings to vaccination providers to estimate vaccination coverage rates for US children aged 19 to 35 months. Data for this study were limited to 14,810 children aged 24 to 35 months.

Main outcome measures: Cumulative days undervaccinated during the first 24 months of life for each of 6 vaccines (diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis; poliovirus; measles, mumps, and rubella; Haemophilus influenzae type b; hepatitis B; and varicella) and all vaccines combined, number of late vaccines, and risk factors for severe delay of vaccination.

Results: Children were undervaccinated a mean of 172 days (median, 126 days) for all vaccines combined during their first 24 months of life. Approximately 34% were undervaccinated for less than 1 month and 29% for 1 to 6 months, while 37% were undervaccinated for more than 6 months. Vaccine-specific undervaccination of more than 6 months ranged from 9% for poliovirus vaccine to 21% for Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine. An estimated 25% of children had delays in receipt of 4 or more of the 6 vaccines. Approximately 21% of children were severely delayed (undervaccinated for more than 6 months and for > or vaccines). Factors associated with severe delay included having a mother who was unmarried or who did not have a college degree, living in a household with 2 or more children, being non-Hispanic black, having 2 or more vaccination providers, and using public vaccination provider(s).

Conclusions: More than 1 in 3 children were undervaccinated for more than 6 months during their first 24 months of life and 1 in 4 children were delayed for at least 4 vaccines. Standard measures of vaccination coverage mask substantial shortfalls in ensuring that recommendations are followed regarding age at vaccination throughout the first 24 months of life.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Child, Preschool
  • Health Surveys
  • Humans
  • Immunization Schedule
  • Infant
  • United States
  • Vaccination / statistics & numerical data*